You've made your research plan, you've recruited your users, you've seen how to ask questions and conduct an interview. Now, all you have to do is pick up the phone and start interacting with users, right?
If you're trying to understand the habits and behaviors of users, rarely does it make sense to hop on a phone call, or even a Skype call. You need to get out into the real world and talk to users in their own environments. This is often referred to as "fieldwork" or "field study" and it's what ethnography is all about: observing and understanding users in the contexts they work and live in day to day.
Context is everything
The strength of ethnography is that it establishes context through observing people in their natural environment, whether it's a home, office, or place where someone spends a lot of time. Insights uncovered through ethnography can lead to solutions that better connect with user needs and desires. Ethnography can also lead to more creative solutions that you may have never considered had you not witnessed something with your own eyes. Seeing is believing, sometimes.
Now that we know the value of observation in context, let's set our goals for this experience:
Notice habits and behaviors
Determine how context impacts the user
Understand beliefs and attitudes
Discern values and meaning
Unlock additional questions
Compare what people say with what you see in reality
Find inspiration in unlikely places
Ethnography – sometimes referred to as contextual inquiry – is not complicated, but there is a lot of nuance to ensuring it will be valuable to your research.
Getting people to talk. This video is a bit dated, but the ideas remain true. It's beneficial to watch examples of ethnography in action, along with reflections and expert interviews. There are great tips including how to make sure you look interested and engaged while interviewing as well as how to avoid awkward responses like "oh, that's interesting". [33:15 min]
The first step is determining in which context you're most likely to find valuable informants. If you're trying to design a tool for increased productivity, don't only rely on what the informant tells you or talks about. See if you can spend the day with them at their office. Have them walk you through the different "systems" they use, from how they rely on their paper notebook to how they organize their computer files. Let them tell you about it, and ask follow up questions. For many people, the way they work is just something they do, and there's not a tendency to reflect on or think about it often. Your job is to ask questions. The challenge is to think differently about any assumptions you may have.
Woof woof! 🐶 🐩 🐕 Back to your research on the dog toys. Sure, you could start at a pet store to see what kind of dog toys exist, but that's more market research. You may uncover what kind of toys exist, and maybe get a sense of which ones are most popular (either by the type of display, or which one are low on stock), but this doesn't mean the owners that bought the toys even use them, let alone that dogs like them. Here's where ethnographic research comes into play; your interest (as you've already defined it) is that you're interested in outdoor dog toys. You need to get outside, away from what you know and see these toys in action. Let's say you've recently moved and don't have any friends with dogs. A trip to the local dog park is a logical start. Here you can observe dogs interacting with their toys (and with their owners). Chances are you'll be able to strike up some conversations with the owners too. A conversation may unfold something like...
You: "Wow, that toy is really cool. I've never seen anything like it."
Dog owner: "Thanks, it's a [toy name] by [brand]. My dog LOVES it!
You: "I can tell. Is it pretty durable?"
Dog owner: "Yes, but this is already our third one in two months. This time I altered it myself and added the hefty rope so I can throw it better. This one has lasted longer than the other two combined."
You: "What inspired you to do that?" ...
You get the point. You just got WAY more insightful research in the course of one minute than you could have after hours of aimless internet searching. Also, when you SEE something with your own eyes it's likely to make a bigger impression than someone telling you about how they use something. Sometimes informal "interviews" can be just as effective as pre-planned formal ones. Often, you may find that some of your strongest insights come from "in between" moments before an interview starts or once the informant thinks it's over and they let their guard down.
Shake up your context
Cross-cultural situations and environments are interesting to consider. Sometimes when a context looks and feels "like home" to us, we assume the same "rules" apply. As a design researcher it is your job to look past the surface and uncover the realities.
A few situations that are good for shaking things up:
Observe situations in a foreign country (sometimes you don't even need to use a passport, start with a trip to a grocery store specializing in foods from another country).
Try something you've never done – or haven't done for a long time – where you already live: ride the bus, spend the afternoon at the public library, volunteer for a non-profit.
Arrange an interview with someone from a different demographic and meet them in a setting that's natural for them.
Depending on the kind and depth of research you're looking to conduct, you may find yourself conducting a 30 minute contextual interview, or spending days, weeks, or months observing a community. Remember, in UX, we're interested in applied research, so the reality is that often you won't have the luxury of time and money to conduct endless research. Besides, don't forget you also have to make sense of what you observe and learn through interviews. Make sure you leave ample time to analyze the data.
Get a sense of how user research works in the real world as Steve Portigal shares research "war stories" inspired by his book Doorbells, Danger and Dead Batteries.
User research war stories – check out the replay of this InVision DesignTalks webinar about stories and lessons learned from the field. [25:12 min]