• 15 hours
  • Medium

Free online content available in this course.



Got it!

Last updated on 5/18/20

Annotate examples of interaction design

Log in or subscribe for free to enjoy all this course has to offer!

In this chapter we'll examine interaction design as a series of changes that communicate what is happening to the user in order for them to accomplish a task or achieve a goal. We'll examine some key ideas including navigation, gestures, state changes and feedback. How they are used can affect the user experience. Wireframing interactions will help you become more observant about the online products and service you use every day.

This chapter is just a quick overview exploring key concepts to get you thinking critically about the role of interactions in the effectiveness and success of a product as we explore products through wireframes. Take advantage of the resources linked in the text to dive deeper.


Navigation in the sense of interaction design can be examined in a couple ways. First there is the structure of the website and how the information is organized. Users can't do something if they can't find it.

Navigation can can come in various forms, using hyperlinked words (like "Menu", "about," "contact"), drop down menus, or the "hamburger menu" which is a series of three lines that serves as a minimalist system of navigation. The problem with a hamburger menu is that it decreases the "discoverability" of the navigation system. Overall, it's the context and how it is used which is most important. Users also want to be able to know how to get "home" or to get help.

A hamburger menu looks like three horizontal lines in a regular state, and when it opens, it changes to an
Sketch of a hamburger menu in a closed and open state. Notice how the three horizontal lines change to an X when the drop down menu appears.

There is also the navigation in terms of the experience of the user along a path. They should never reach a dead end. Even if it is the last step of a task, such as purchasing something online, there still needs to be a key option to continue navigating on the site. This could be the option to explore similar products, discover new products, or view your purchases. The more you think of this, you become aware of how these interactions are good for business. For instance, consider how Amazon.com suggests other books you may enjoy based on your search, but also after you add something to your card. This online functionality works very much like an "impulse buy" when you're standing the check-out line at a shop.  When you stand in line, there are often shelves of candy or other items next to the register which can tempt you to add something to your basket that you didn't set out to buy. You better believe that users spend more money because of features like these!


Gestures are simple, physical movements and motions by the users, where their fingers can help control how we interact with and achieve specific outcomes on touch screens. Gestures can signal a state change, and initiate an action. Touch screens mean that more gestures are available to the user than when devices were limited to tactile buttons or rollerballs. Gestures can also be applied on laptops using the trackpad or touch bar.

Icons of gestures to initiate movements on a touch screen.
Gestures that can be used on a touch screen

Examining gestures in the context of a device or product is important, because the context can affect how it is used. For instance, a mobile phone is designed to be held in your hands, so the size and scope of the gestures needs to be taken into consideration.

Depending on the device, gestures can be used to accomplish different tasks and goals.
Gestures in the context of the device.

Gestures are dependant on the platform and device (for instance, iOS vs Android), but in general, similar gestures result in similar interactions. Gestures have become part of the language of how we use touch screens through simple movements:

  • Tap

  • Double tap

  • Swipe

  • Drag

  • Fling

  • Flick

  • Touch and hold / long press

  • Pinch open/closed

  • Rotate

  • Shake

  • Tilt 

Be aware of gestures as you sketch your wireframes. Look for creative uses that you hadn't considered! You can add annotated notes to screenshots, or create a list of gestures (and reactions) that you discover in different apps. Once you are aware of gestures, you'll start to become more attentive to how you can implement them in your own designs.

State changes

State changes serve as a guide to help users move through a user flow. The help indicate progress and forward movement in achieving a goal or task. Think about state changes as the interactions that help you get to point A to B.

State changes may involve entirely new screens, or subtle changes to color or text/copy to signal a shift. One of the most common state changes you'll encounter are in button design. From color, to shape, size, labels, and clickablility, the user knows what is required of them in order to complete the task thanks to their appearance.  (Google's Material.io has an entire section devoted to designing buttons). 

The iOS app "Calm" was voted the top app of 2017. After downloading the app it prompts you to select the areas you are interested. Notice that the "continue" button is not clickable until you select at least one goal. Once you click a button, it adds color to signify that is selected. The "continue" button turns green to signify that you can click it.

Left screen nothing is selected. On the right screen, the buttons change color, and the
The continue button (left) is not clickable until you select which aspects of Calm app you're most interested in. The buttons change state and the color becomes filled it to denote it was selected.

Designer/developer Vince Speelman explores the nine states of design, which he breaks into:

  1. Nothing – what happens before a component exists or starts

  2. Loading – an indicator that content is loading

  3. None (empty) – what the user sees before they add any content or data

  4. One – one item is treated differently (one added, one left)

  5. Some – enough content for an ideal experience

  6. Too many – too many results so that it's overwhelming

  7. Incorrect – error occurs

  8. Correct – indication user is on the right track

  9. Done – goal is achieved (user receives confirmation, or is rewarded)

Empty states are the "before" moments in the user's journey that may not have content for the user to interact with, however, can still provide an opportunity to educate and inform the user, or encourage an interaction to take place. Emptystat.es is a collection of these different screens – some are quite clever! Material.io has their own as well.

Screenshot left of empty state from Trainline. Sketch on right. There is a call to action because there are no upcoming trips.
In the empty state Trainline's app tells me I don't have any upcoming trips, but gives me a clear call to action to book my next trip. Notice the change in color for "upcoming" (top) to show it is selected, and "tickets" (text + icon) are darker blue 

Pay close attention to button states as you sketch your wireframes!


UX expert Nick Babich describes visual feedback as what "holds the entire experience together." Feedback is essential to showing life in your product and aids in a positive experience for the user.  Without proper feedback, users are bound to be confused by what is going on, or if the app or site is even working. 

Feedback can express itself in many ways including:

  • Spinning wheel (or similar) to signal loading/processing

  • Clear indicator/signal that a feature has been turned on/off or a button has been clicked

  • Number of items in cart (or the fact that your cart is not empty)

  • Confirmation of purchase or goal

  • Color or treatment change to indicate a state change

  • Text (or color red) to signal error message

  • Haptic response (such as a buzz or vibration) to signal something has happened

Nick Babich shares more examples on how details matter when showing visual feedback in design.  


Annotated wireframes are a tool for communication. They are helpful for sharing with developers as they'll be the people bringing your designs to life and putting these interactions into place. Never assume they know what is supposed to happen unless you clearly communicate it to them. Clear, direct notes in the column of a document can achieve that easily.

The other benefit of documentation is that it helps inform your next steps clear in the design process.

It can also be helpful to share a clickable prototype (stay tuned for part two) that shows these interactions in action with developers. It's always frustrating having to go back to a project you think is already finished only to realize it was done wrong. Clear communication up front, and in multiple formats is very beneficial for working with developers (they'll also love working with you too because of it – no one is a mind reader! ).

Simple sketches of mobile screens, showing how the user will move through the app, and choices they may face. Noting flows with arrows, as well as state changes.
Whiteboards are also great for working through preliminary wireframes. This wireflow considers a user's first experience with the app, the presentation of the value proposition, and options the user faces. 

Wireflows are another approach suggested by the Nielsen Norman Group for being able to see the big picture of screens and when, where, and why interactions. With wireflows you can quickly get a sense of what is happening within the context of the wireframe to quickly see how screens are connected and which interactions take place.

Mini challenge

As you examine existing websites and apps, in addition to the device, format, and layout, start to add notes about interactions that stand out or make the product stand out. (In the next chapter we'll examine micro-interactions which are proof that even the smallest details can have a big impact!).

Hand drawn marker wireframes of Trainline app with annotated notes.
A few screens of the Trainline.Eu app to book train travel in Europe. This sketch includes annotated notes of what I found most noteworthy or important for interactions. 

Wireframes capture screens and layouts in a flat and static form. Often multiple wireframes need to be drawn to communicate different , and more complex ideas. Annotated notes can be added outside the frame in order to communicate what is happening. For this chapter look specifically at aspects of interaction design as you build your library of sketches.

Example of certificate of achievement
Example of certificate of achievement